The History of the Internet - Part I
concept of a network of computers, exchanging programs
and data, were first conceived in the August of 1962, by J.C.R.
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
conceived a network of computers, interlinked to each
other, and which share information from one to another.
set into motion, the concept of Computer Networking.
1965 an MIT scientist named Leonard Kleinrock developed
the packet switching network, in which the data is transmitted as
it was thought that circuit switching was the way
to communicate between computers in a network, but later was abandoned
packet switching, as it was more reliable, efficient, and needed less
switching software networking, is where the sender
and receiver, both are connected by a dedicated communications channel,
have the full bandwidth of the channel for the duration of the
example of this would be a telephone call, between two
switching involves sending information in a packet
form, which would consist of a header with address and routing
a message body.
packets get routed through different computers, until
it reaches its final destination computer.
common example would be an email, which is sent by a
person in one computer, and it is broken into packets.
packet is then routed through different computers,
until it reaches its destination computer.
the final computer, all the packets are reassembled, and
is presented as an email for the recipient.
packet switching, communicating from computer to
computer became a feasible improvement.
1965, using packet switching, the first computer to
computer messaging was done over the telephone network, between a
Massachusetts and a computer in California.
1969, the first computer network ARPANET was born, when a
computer in the
, and a
were connected. And then a message was successfully sent through them.
end of 1969, two more computers joined the ARPANET to
a total of four. They were from the UC Santa Barbara, and the
1971 more computers in
were added to the ARPANET network.
ARPANET was the predecessor of the INTERNET.
it was difficult to communicate, as there were no proper
procedure, for the computers to interface effectively.
procedure of communication is known as a protocol,
similar to the way , one country communicates with another country
diplomatic protocol. Both have a set of rules and interfaces.
came a computer scientist by the name of Vinton Cerf,
who developed a procedure or protocol, for one computer to communicate
protocol was known as 'Transmission Control Protocol-Internet
gained popularity and then became widely known by its
is a way a computer communicates with another
computer, through a handshake, by which both computers identify to each
and pass the data.
protocol TCP/IP was widely used in the 1980s.
were also other protocols developed, like the X.25 and
others from major companies like IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation,
TCP/IP was the most popular.
ARPANET grew bigger, with more and more computers added
to its network.
The ARPANET defined the 1980s.